After three molts the adult begins to deposit eggs and secrete the conspicuous egg sac. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Good control was achieved when applied alone or with 0.5% mineral oil (Peleg, 1989). /. An illustrated redescription of Icerya purchasi. (Une surprenante infestation de la cochenille Australienne Icerya purchasi Maskell en plein Paris [Hemiptera, Margarodidae].). (Proteaceae) in Australia. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 26(2):89-90. http://www.benhs.org.uk. Icerya purchasi Maskell, 1879, Cottony Cushion Scale General Description. The vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant), was introduced into California in 1888 for the biological control of the cottony cushion scale (DeBach 1973). Cottony cushion scale is most frequently collected on Citrus and Pittosporum in Florida. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. It was first observed in South Africa at Cape Town in 1873. Insects of Micronesia, Homoptera: Coccoidea. Fauna of New Zealand, No. Morrison H. 1928. Bridgetown, Barbados; Caribbean Agricultural Research & Development Institute, vi + 81 pp. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 56:309-356. In 1888, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) imported various natural enemies from Australia, including the vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis. Gertsson CA (2015) """Coccoidea Sverige Kollad av C_A G.xlsx"" sent to Johan Liljeblad via e … In: Peleg BA, Bar-Zakay I, Ascher KRS, eds. List of Coccoidea (Homoptera) of China. Bioecological and population studies of the cottony-cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Mask. When I. purchasi established in California, USA in 1868/1869, it was apparent that it could be a major impediment to citrus production. NHM, 1988. NHM, 1971. Indian Forester, 138(2):200. http://www.indianforester.org. Rao (1951) reviewed the known species of Icerya living in the Oriental Region, and a revision of the known species in Australia is currently in progress. http://www.soihs.it. I. purchasi belongs to the scale insect family Monophlebidae, the giant scales. Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Special Publication, 89:1-98. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London). Side-effects of pesticides on selected natural enemies occurring in citrus in Spain. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London). Bulletin de lâInstitut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Entomologie, 73:177-180. Abundance of Icerya purchasi (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) and its parasitoid Cryptochaetum iceryae (Diptera: Cryptochaetidae) in Argentina blueberry crops. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London). 480. Homoptera: Coccoidea. citrussköldlus in Swedish Bibliographic References. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. v + 141 pp. Iceryine scale insects recorded from the Orient. The host was kangaroo acacia and the insect was named for Dr. Purchas. Jacas Miret JA; Garcia Mari F, 2001. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: Auckland, on kangaroo acacia [=Acacia sp. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Icerya purchasi Maskell is reported as established outdoors in England for the first time. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 17(2):103-104. Insects of Micronesia, 6:377-562. Indian Forester, 130(5):583-584. 21:123 pp. Details about Icerya purchasi Maskell Burmite Myanmar Burmese Amber insect fossil dinosaur age See original listing. Photograph by Paul M. Choate, University of Florida. EPPO Global database. Part 2. CIE, 1971. (2003). Proceedings of a meeting (3-6 October, 2001), San Michele AllâAdige, Trento, Italy: Bulletin OILB SROP, 25(11):81-88. 130 (5), 583-584. Bartlett BR, 1978. The regulation of I. purchasi by natural enemies is one of the classic success stories in biological control. Bermuda;Chile;Egypt;India;Israel;New Zealand;Peru;Sao Tome and Principe;South Australia;St Kitts Nevis;USA, Acacia baileyana; Acalypha; Citrus; Erythrina umbrosus; fruit trees; ornamental plants; roses; Tamarix, Antigua; Ascension; Australia; South Australia; Bahamas; Barbados; Bermuda; California; Cayman Islands; Chile; Cyprus; Ecuador; Egypt; Ethiopia; France; Greece; Guam; Hawaii; Hong Kong; Israel; Italy; Kenya; Madagascar; Malta; Montserrat; New Zealand; Peru; Philippines; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Republic of Georgia; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; St Helena; St Kitts Nevis; Switzerland; Taiwan; Uruguay; USA; USSR; Venezuela; Yugoslavia, Acacia; Acacia baileyana; Acalypha; Casuarina; Citrus; fruit trees; orchards; ornamental plants; pigeon peas; roses; Tamarix, Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye, Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches. ), 21(4):175-178. Exotic scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) causing severe damage to ornamental pittosporum in London. THE BIOLOGY AND POPULATION DYNAMICS OF ICERYA PURCHASI MASKELL (HOMOPTERA: MARGARODIDAE) A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII IN PARTIAL FULFILIMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ll'EXlREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN ENTOMOIOOY JUNE 1969 Lester Darrel Hale Dissertation … A detailed history of the introduction of the vedalia beetle into California, USA, is given by Caltagirone and Doutt (1989). NHM, 1964. Figure 6. Gokkes M; Eshel G; Tadmor U, 1989. Field trials for the control of chaff scale and Florida wax scale in citrus orchards with Tiger (pyriproxifen).
Cottony cushion scale, a soft scale (Icerya purchasi). In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. New record of Icerya purchasi in one year old seedlings of Albizia procera (Roxb.) In: Ambienti naturali e antitropici di Sicilia. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 4(1):29-32. In: Van Driesche RG, ed. Taxonomy; Ecology; Introduction; Distribution; References; The Cottony Cushion Scale is a self-fertile hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm, Fan MZ; Guo C; Xiao HL; Hu Y, 1988. On some Coccidae in New Zealand. The originally infested Florida trees were destroyed, but infested trees appeared again in late 1898. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 82(3):1175-1182. All life stages of I. purchasi are covered with wax, which reduces the effectiveness of most chemical insecticides. Rao VP, 1951. Hilgardia, 41(20):631-688. Gill RJ, 1993. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London). 11 (2), 105-110. [Distribution map]. 7 (3), 61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en DOI:10.1590/S1676-06032007000300006. The host was kangaroo acacia and the insect was named for Dr. Purchas. As the egg sac is formed the scale’s abdomen becomes more and more tilted until the scale appears to be standing on its head. In: Technical Document No. Entomological Research. Cottony cushion scale infestation on acacia trees. Wang DaoXun; Lou Zhi; Li Ping; Gao ZhiHua, 2002. Wong CY, Chen SP, Chou LH, 1999. At that time only one other species was known in the genus Icerya (Maskell 1878). The mature females (actually hermaphrodites) have bright orange-red, yellow, or brown bodies (Ebeling 1959). They are winged with a dark red body and dark colored antennae. Icerya purchasi (Homoptera: Margarodidae) on Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae), a new host plant record for Greece. A remarkable infestation of the cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi Maskell in central … Peleg BA, 1989. No wings. If large numbers of ants attend a heavy infestation of the scale, it may be worthwhile controlling the ants to help the natural enemies bring the scale population under control quickly. Body red, legs and antennae black, covered by layer of white to cream colored wax, median area sometimes with lemon yellow wax, marginal areas with fringe of wax processes all about same length; margin of body with long crystalline rods. Insects on plants in the Maldives and their management. Clausen CP, 1978. 1901. KollÃ¡r J; Bakay L; PÃ¡stor M, 2016. American Entomologist, 44(4):218-236; 34 ref. Agricultural Handbook No. 11 (2), 11. Apparently interpreting this as a request for the ladybug, the California party sent a shipment of these ladybugs and included some cottony cushion scales as food for the ladybugs. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 2014 Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide: Soft-Bodied Insects Attacking Foliage and Fruit. Grafton-Cardwell EE. Amitava Konar, 1998. http://www.unict.it/dipartimenti/biologia_animale/webnatur/insetti/omotteri/coccoidea.htm, SchÃ¶nfeld U, 2015. IOBC-WPRS Working Group âPesticides and Beneficial Organismsâ. American Entomologist. Biology. The antennae are six-segmented. Foldi I, 2003. 1999). and its natural enemies, Rhodolia cardinalis Mul. The pest status of citrus scale insects in Israel (1984-1994). The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Clausen CP, ed. 436 p. Gossard HA. If self-fertilization occurs only hermaphrodites are produced; however, when a hermaphrodite mates with a male, more males and hermaphrodites are produced (Ebeling 1959). Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. and Cryptochaetum iceryae Will., in southern California. Icerya purchasi Maskell (INRA / Antibes) Novius (Rodolia) cardinalis Originating from Australia, this ladybird was introduced at the end of the 19th century to be used as a beneficial insect in biological control. Waterhouse D F, 1993. NHM, 1981. The cottony cushion scale was described by Maskell (1878) from specimens sent to him by Dr. Purchas from Auckland, New Zealand. The history of the vedalia beetle importation to California and its impact on the development of biological control. Dark whorls of setae extend from each antennal segment, except the first (Ebeling 1959). Icerya is a genus of scale insects in the family Monophlebidae.It is named after physician-naturalist Dr. Edmond Icery of British Mauritius.. Hermaphroditism. The cottony cushion scale was described by Maskell (1878) from specimens sent to him by Dr. Purchas from Auckland, New Zealand. Sacramento, California, USA: California Department of Food and Agriculture, 79-80. Several life stages of the cottony cushion scales, Icerya purchasi Maskell, on a twig. 176 pp. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London). Indian Forester. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London). http://www.unict.it/dipartimenti/biologia_animale/webnatur/insetti/omotteri/coccoidea.htm, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. In more arid and hot inland areas, vedalia beetles are more effective. Icerya purchasi : adult with ovisac on Grevillea sp. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History. Revue FranÃ§aise d'Entomologie. 21. Various other natural enemies have been tried against I. purchasi, but with little success. Journal of Zhejiang Forestry Science and Technology. Konar A, 1998. 135. http://www.unict.it/dipartimenti/biologia_animale/webnatur/insetti/omotteri/coccoidea.htm. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Wufeng, Taichung, Taiwan: Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute. 52 (3), 217-219. http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/187985.pdf, Malumphy C, 2013. Caltagirone and Doutt (1989) suggested that these plants (with residual populations of the scale) provide permanent sources of vedalia that will disperse into new infestations of scale on citrus and bring them under control. Caltagirone LE; Doutt RL, 1989. Injurious and beneficial insects of California. The genus Icerya has been poorly studied and it is possible that there are other species similar to I. purchasi living in the same geographical areas. Biota Neotropica, 7(3):61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en, EPPO, 2014. Icerya purchasi Maskell -- Homoptera, Margarodidae (Contacts) GO TO ALL: Bio-Control Cases . NHM, 1977. Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of EspÃrito Santo, Brazil. Benth. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Competition between the two natural enemies did not increase host survival and these studies provide strong support for the importation of multiple natural enemies. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. Meshram PB; Vijayaraghavan A, 2004. Verma SK; Gireesh Chand; Pankaj Kumar, 2012. (Cocciden-arten in Brandenburg.) Biota Neotropica. Plant Protection Science. It is interesting that the female is always a hermaphrodite with both testes and ovaries. 38 (2), 380-386. In Florida, this scale has been reported from most counties. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. The older nymphs continue to feed, but migrate to the larger twigs, and finally, as adults, they settle on the larger branches and trunk. cottony cushion scale in language. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
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