are dried seahorses illegal

17-jun-2020 - Explora el tablero de DAD ROOD "Gelatinas con fruta" en Pinterest. Curio Trade. Seahorses are often used in Chinese medicine. When he found “seahorse” in the encyclopedia, he translated the entry. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2019.01.014. A bust in 2012 seized 16,000 dried seahorses that authorities estimate could have sold for up to $250,000. Desiccated seahorses have a long shelf life and are easy to hide in suitcases. Illegal: Millions of seahorses are sold illegally every year, often to be used in Chinese medicine Neil Garrick-Maidment, director of the charity in Honiton, Devon, said he was 'delighted'. While Chinese medicine has a two thousand-year history with seahorses, Cheng said that today, they “are far from commonly used herbs.” Seahorses are used recreationally and superstitiously, he said. Behind the scenes at the California Academy of Sciences, baby potbellied seahorses roamed a tall, bubbling tank. Traders reported obtaining dried seahorses from many countries with bans on seahorse exports, most notably Thailand and the Philippines. “That doesn’t attract top talent to the industry,” Cheng said. Southeast Asia and West Africa are the main regions exporting them. However, the new research from UBC indicates that many nations with bans apparently continued to export dried seahorses, thus neither meeting their obligations under CITES nor enforcing the trade bans. But they are a folk remedy, like a supplement from a vitamin store. "We found that 95 per cent of dried seahorses in Hong Kong's large market were reported as being imported from source countries that had export bans being in place, including Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, and Viet Nam," noted Dr. Ting-Chun Kuo, co-author and, during the study, a PhD candidate in Project Seahorse. “They need to stop trawling,” Foster said. Yong is the Studbook Keeper and Species Survival Program Coordinator for lined seahorses, native to the Eastern Seaboard. “We found that 95 per cent of dried seahorses in Hong Kong’s large market were reported as being imported from source countries that had export bans being in place, including Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, and Viet Nam,” noted Dr. Ting-Chun Kuo, co-author and, during the study, a PhD candidate in Project Seahorse. We call this the CURIO TRADE. Seahorses are often dried and ground into a powder, and added by Chinese consumers to rice wine, tea or soup. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Steven Yong sat behind the scenes at the Cal Academy, in a bright conference room framed by sleek, sliding-glass doors. Articles. Millions of seahorses have disappeared from Italy’s coastline thanks to a sudden growth in the black market. The illegal international trade in seahorses has, however, become a big concern. Bins of animal and plant-based products are filed neatly beneath glass counters. Until fishing changes, farming won’t be enough. I used to have a dried up souvenir seahorse named Fiddles. NOTHING, yet seahorses are killed and dried as in some parts of the world it is believed they can help with asthma, skin infections and baldness! In 2002, an international treaty called the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, or CITES, responded to mounting concerns by tightening trade restrictions on all 44 species of seahorse. This study sought to understand current sources of seahorses (2016–17) and relative volumes from each source. Nowadays, questions about seahorses are met with hesitation or silence. Photo Credit: Jean-Claude Vanderwal/ Guylian Seahorses of the World. “It’s the overexploitation by non-selective fishing gear that’s the problem.”. Tiger Bone. “They are operating here in Portugal and other countries,” says Correia. Hong Kong customs officers have made their biggest seizure of endangered seahorses in two years with the arrest of a 63-year-old man during an operation against illegal wildlife trade, finding 75kg of the product valued at HK$1 million (US$129,000).About 25kg of the dried seahorses were airmailed into the city from Indonesia via a logistic hub in Shenzhen and were found in a Hong Kong … Sign up today to get weekly updates and action alerts from Oceana. The trade is illegal but continues because of their use in Chinese medicine. CITES decided in August 2019, at its 18th meeting of the Conference of the Parties, to act to enhance implementation of the seahorse listing. Victor Cheng leaned across his office desk, in a small business park, in San Jose, California. Farming is especially promising for the pet and aquarium trades, where captive-bred specimens gained popularity after wild ones became harder to buy. An additional 17 species are understudied, and listed as “data deficient.” Two are endangered. In lieu of fish flakes, most aquariums feed their seahorses brine shrimp, which are small and relatively inexpensive, but offer limited nutrition. However, all countries historically exporting large numbers of seahorses have since banned trade or are under CITES export suspensions. That makes it unfair to blame traditional medicine for seahorse declines, she added. 2 Minute Read 2 Minute Read Imagine if just 1 percent bought a single seahorse every year. A small percent are plunked into home aquariums, or sold as kitschy souvenirs. But the biggest problem isn't demand. Hong Kong’s biggest seizure of seahorses in two years recovers 75kg of endangered species, valued at HK$1 million “Now we’re talking about illegal wildlife trade,” Foster said. To investigate global compliance, 220 interviews were conducted with traders in Hong Kong Specialist Administrative Region (hereafter Hong Kong SAR), the largest entrepôt for dried seahorses. Is it legal to own one? The Seahorse Trust has … Between 2005 and 2015, the US imported roughly 140,000 live, wild-caught seahorses through Los Angeles, San Francisco and Seattle alone, according to U.S. Across the Pacific in Hawaii, Australia and Sri Lanka, seahorse farms have already cropped up. 'All seahorses are legally protected and much of the eBay trafficking was illegal under EU and other international regulations,' he said. Rather than visit a doctor they don’t trust, rural people head for prestigious (and crowded) urban hospitals, to see a physician with a good reputation, he said. Both wild and captive-bred live seahorses are sold for aquarium display. and A.C.J. “I don’t even think they stock them in major hospitals in China.”. Importers now need special permits to sell any non-native species, so shop owners have a much harder time stocking their shelves with seahorses legally. They’d otherwise be thrown away, after all. "They're very prone to being taken for … To most people seahorses are cute, almost magical sea creatures but many in China prefer to see them in their soup or tea. The first records of their medical use appeared about 2,000 years ago, he read, in a Daoist tome, the Baopuzi. Evidence suggested however that India, Malaysia, the Philippines, Viet Nam, and Thailand all continued to export seahorses. http://ow.ly/HoEaH, Millions of seahorses wind up dead on the black market for this senseless reason, International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Sign our petition to tell GrubHub to take shark fin off the menu now – before the ocean’s most iconic predators disappear. 0 . Seahorses will be wiped out within three decades by the illegal sale of dead wildlife as curiosities, according to a conservation charity. Chinese authorities capture an illegal shipment of freeze-dried seahorses from Egypt, apparently brought in Beijing to serve the burgeoning market in … Marine Policy 103: 33-41. The permits, which have been required since seahorses were listed on the treaty CITES in 2002, certify that any species for sale were caught without harming wild populations, meaning herbal shops can’t sell bycatch anymore. Hong Kong customs officers have made their biggest seizure of endangered seahorses in two years with the arrest of a 63-year-old man during an operation against illegal wildlife trade, finding 75kg of the product valued at HK$1 million (US$129,000). Sign on to the petition to urge the Chinese government to crack down on the seashorse slaughter. Hong Kong’s biggest seizure of seahorses in two years recovers 75kg of endangered species, valued at HK$1 million. Seahorses are listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Indeed, it is estimated that almost all dried seahorses in Hong Kong SAR (95%) were reportedly imported from source countries despite export bans being in place, indicating a widespread lack of enforcement. Learning to farm seahorses, breeders say, offers a glimmer of hope for their future in the wild. The first records of their medical use appea… More often than not, they are captured for ornaments, expensive liquor, or aphrodisiacs. Dried seahorses used to be common. Dried seahorses are ground into powder to treat certain ailments and one of the common applications is for men with erectile dysfunction. Kevin Laurie didn't know he was about to discover an illegal animal murder and trade center when he walked into a shop in the Guangzhou district of China. The baby potbellied seahorses that crowded the glass at the California Academy of Sciences, for example, were born and raised in captivity thousands of miles from their native Australia. It is particularly noteworthy that illegal dried seahorse imports from Thailand, the Philippines and Indonesia reportedly persist at notable levels. More than half of captured seahorses end up dead, dried and sold internationally for use in traditional medicines thought to boost virility and even cure impotence. A great way to get involved in protecting #oceans: Join Oceana as a Wavemaker & sound off on important issues! "The 183 Parties to CITES are required to limit export of species that have been placed on Appendix II, including seahorses, to levels that are safe for wild populations. Illegal import of dried seahorses seized by AFCD (with photos) ***** The Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) mounted a joint operation with the Customs and Excise Department against illegal import of endangered species at the Air Mail Centre of Hong Kong International Airport last week. But then he saw the thousands upon thousands of dried seahorses being sold there. Illegal trade undermines efforts to achieve sustainable use of wildlife, including marine fishes. Threats to these magnificent creatures include poachers. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Many countries with export bans on seahorses are still trading in the tiny animals, a new study has found. That would still add up to 14 million animals. They can wait in long lines for hours, even sleeping on the floor, before being seen. Victor Cheng leaned across his office desk, in a small business park, in San Jose, California. Off a remote Cambodian island, conservationists are battling against illegal fishermen to save the iconic species, the seahorse. Trade bans forced the industry underground, but it’s still massive. They are typically soaked in alcohol, or boiled as a tea, to ostensibly increase sperm count and activity. If you live in an arid environment, you probably know that dry nasal and sinus passageways can lead to other problems including thick mucus and frequent bloody noses.It's important it is to maintain a proper amount of moisture in your nose and sinuses. Seahorses are often used in Chinese medicine. Almost every part of the tiger is considered sacred and capable of healing in TCM. Vincent. In this Nov. 28, 2016, photo, dried seahorses are displaying in plastic jar for sale in a traditional Chinese medicine shop in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. “We did it to provide an alternative to taking seahorses out of the ocean,” she said. Fish and Wildlife Service data obtained under a Freedom of Information Act request. Dried seahorses used in Chinese medicine, worth HK$1 million have been seized at Lok Ma Chau Control Point and in Tuen Mun on November 25 and 26. But alternatives, like captive breeding, do exist. He poured over a thick Chinese medical encyclopedia, hunting for “hai ma,” or seahorse. They may come with straight or curled tails we do not do requests. CITES banned all trade in seahorses in 2004. When he found “seahorse” in the encyclopedia, he translated the entry. Following permitting requirements, most of the major exporting countries banned seahorse trade. Carol Cozzi-Schmarr has raised seahorses in Kona, Hawaii, since 1998. These fish were living the good life. Tiger … “A decline in reported trade looks like a good thing on paper,” Foster said. Today, most imported seahorses are wild-caught. Dried Captive Bred Real Common Seahorses. Seahorses are my favorite animal ever. For example, according to the BBC, Peru banned seahorse fishing in 2004, yet traffickers still catch and export seahorses to Asia. Dried Seahorses on sale in a traditional downtown shop in Hong Kong (2019, By Sam Topp) ... Their survey of traders in Hong Kong found that Thailand and the Philippines were the two biggest source countries of illegal seahorses, while countries throughout South Asia and Africa were also found to be illegally exporting the species to Hong Kong. Global seahorse trade defies export bans under CITES action and national legislation. More broadly, trade regulations, including bans, are likely to be undermined when indiscriminate extraction persists, as with seahorses in bottom trawls and other non-selective fishing methods. Vincent. “They are operating here in Portugal and other countries,” says Correia. Perhaps most insidiously, bycatch keeps wild seahorses cheap — at least for now. Because, it turns out, most seahorses aren’t caught on purpose. In 2017, Spanish police arrested traffickers in Cadiz in possession of more than 2,000 dried seahorses. It’s his job to know the pedigrees kept  in every American Association of Zoos and Aquariums facility, and to play matchmaker by recommending which lineages should breed. A doctor would prescribe something more potent, like seal’s penis, he said. Thailand, the biggest producer, voluntarily suspended its exports in 2016. To make social services affordable, doctors are paid very little. Captive breeding and farming may help, but imagine, despite the vastness of the oceans, the last of their kind all born behind glass. Seahorses are heavily traded, first and foremost as dried (wild) specimens for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with smaller trades in live (wild and captive bred) seahorses for aquarium display and dried (wild) seahorses for curios; dried specimens made up 98% of the reported trade from 2004 to 2011, and 93% of the trade was reportedly imported by Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan, Province of … If global trends continue, some species could disappear from the wild entirely; museums might be the last places to see these charismatic little fish. Despite legal protection, life keeps getting harder for these unusual fish. Boxes of loose tea, bags of roots and other natural products line the shelves of herbal shops in San Francisco’s Chinatown. India, Malaysia and Viet Nam are also implicated in the banned international trade of dried seahorses. Ninety-six percent of the global trade is now illegal. CITES banned all trade in seahorses in 2004. Cheng, a graduate of UC Berkeley and UCLA, practices traditional Chinese medicine in California, and at Shuguang Hospital in Shanghai. CITES decided in August 2019, at its 18th meeting of the Conference of the Parties, to act to enhance implementation of the seahorse listing. Overfishing is just one part of a much larger issue. In particular, Thailand, previously considered the source of about 75% of all wild dried seahorses, suspended exports in January 2016. Each year over 1 MILLION seahorses are taken from the wild, killed and dried to sell as SOUVENIRS. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Dried Seahorse for sale, The quantity offered is based on the size of the seahorses and stock at the time of your order. If so, Where can I get one?! Millions were still sold around the world. Rice wine with seahorses stuffed inside the bottles is advertised as a powerful sex tonic to "turn a man into an all-night Romeo." Hong Kong customs officers have made their biggest seizure of endangered seahorses in two years with the arrest of a 63-year-old man during an operation against illegal wildlife trade, finding 75kg of the product valued at HK$1 million (US$129,000). In 2017, Spanish police arrested traffickers in Cadiz in possession of more than 2,000 dried seahorses. Subsequently, after listing seahorses on CITES, many countries have banned their seahorse exports. In Cambodia, where buying, selling and processing of seahorses is illegal, a dried seahorse was priced at $2 to $2.50. “So even if we weren’t using seahorses, they would still be caught and killed,” Foster said. Dried Seahorses Seized—All Eight Million In this week’s crime blotter: fish illegally bound for Asia, a massive elephant skull, and 22 tortoises in a bag. Dried seahorse (Photo: Sharat Ganapati for Flickr ((CC BY 2.0)) Chinese authorities seized on Wednesday over 1.2t of smuggled dried seahorse at the port of Qingdao, Shandong province, Undercurrent news, specialized in seafood business and food, reported on Wednesday. “But that does not reflect what’s really happening.” Between 20 and 25 million dead, dried seahorses are still moving across borders every year, she estimated, largely from the same countries as before. Twelve seahorse species are listed as “vulnerable” by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, one step down from endangered. I want a real one!! 2018. Most fishermen don’t set out to supply the traditional medicine market. And as these animals become rarer, demand may drive the cost up further, meaning they’ll just get more expensive. Seahorses are gone — or at least, less visible — in Bay Area markets. They snare seahorses accidentally, using indiscriminate trawl nets, gill nets and crab traps, while angling for other creatures, said marine scientist Sarah Foster of the conservation group Project Seahorse. This designation allows exports of specimens that are sourced sustainably and legally (within CITES rules). A 63-year-old man was arrested for what the Hongkong Customs officers describe as their biggest seizure of endangered seahorses in two years as authorities found 75 kg of dried seahorses… Bycatch would be thrown away as trash fish if not for medicinal demand. Dried Seahorses on sale in a traditional downtown shop in Hong Kong (2019, By Sam Topp) In 2001 India also banned all fisheries and exports of seahorses and in 2016 Thailand followed suit by also suspending the export of seahorses, while other countries who didn’t meet the set trade obligations had bans enforced upon them by CITES. Bycatch hurts seahorses both directly and indirectly: It kills millions a year, while destructive fishing gear damages their habitat by mangling fragile ecosystems, Foster said. Dried seahorses are ground into powder to treat certain ailments and one of the common applications is for men with erectile dysfunction. We have already protected nearly 4 million square miles of ocean and innumerable sea life - but there is still more to be done. To make matters worse, many of the fishing methods to catch seahorses also destroy their habitats. If you live in an arid environment, you probably know that dry nasal and sinus passageways can lead to other problems including thick mucus and frequent bloody noses.It's important it is to maintain a proper amount of moisture in your nose and sinuses. They used their prehensile tails to cling to seagrass and to one another. In the UK, seizures of seahorses at our borders are thankfully few and far between. Smaller numbers of dried seahorses are used for curios and novelties. , Kuo, T-C., Wan, A.K.Y. But even if the trade bans had worked, seahorses would still be dying in droves, because most are killed unintentionally by fishing gear. The Seahorse Trust campaigns to stop the sale of dried marine animals 2019. You could buy them by the scoopful. Fishermen can sell them for very little. China is home to more than one billion people. He poured over a thick Chinese medical encyclopedia, hunting for “hai ma,” or seahorse. Fisheries surveys, trade surveys, or both in source countries with trade bans have revealed persistent illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) exports of dried seahorses, particularly from India, Malaysia, Philippines and Vietnam. They’re shipped illegally, so they don’t have permits, making the black market much harder to track. Many countries with export bans on seahorses are still trading in the tiny animals, a new study has found. Prices are marked up as seahorses move from local ports to distributors, and into herbal shops worldwide. Sign on to the petition to urge the Chinese government to crack down on the seashorse slaughter. The weighted trawl nets that snag these fish also rip up the seabed, along with the grasses, rocks and corals that seahorses cling to. Almost 40 million seahorses die every year, often ending up in a huge global trade. Most notably, Thailand, the biggest seahorse source country on record, decided to suspend their exports in January 2016. Attention must be directed at managing extraction as well as increasing enforcement of trade bans. Scientists don’t know enough about many wild populations to bring them into an aquarium setting. Seahorses, he said, are challenging to rear in captivity, because babies, called fry, rarely survive to adulthood. (Click to download seahorse seizures_spreadsheet - updated 2018 Nov 15) Foster, S.J. Dried seahorse (Photo: Sharat Ganapati for Flickr ((CC BY 2.0)) Chinese authorities seized on Wednesday over 1.2t of smuggled dried seahorse at the port of Qingdao, Shandong province, Undercurrent news, specialized in seafood business and food, reported on … “If we weren't preserving the species, no one would ever see them again.” Today, Schmarr said Ocean Rider is large enough to supply the pet trade with thousands of seahorses a year. The problem is much bigger, researchers say. We are restoring the world’s wild fish populations to serve as a sustainable source of protein for people. The trade is illegal but continues because of their use in Chinese medicine. The baby potbellied seahorses in San Francisco were a minority — most seahorses aren’t so lucky. Despite the seahorse’s folk status, traditional medicine still fuels the majority of global demand. Seahorses are classed as “vulnerable” rather than “endangered”, so are not included in this ban. Locally available treatments, like seahorses, are an appealing alternative. “We need much more of the ocean set aside, where these gears are not being used.”. Evidence suggested however that India, Malaysia, the Philippines, Viet Nam, and Thailand all continued to export seahorses. Kuo, T-C. and A.C.J. Yong questioned if captive breeding can ever really put a dent in seahorse woes. To most people seahorses are cute, almost magical sea creatures but many in China prefer to see them in their soup or tea. But existing conservation efforts may not be enough to save them. Facilities like the Academy are growing other live food options, to mimic the dietary diversity seahorses get in the wild. The babies were small and slim as a finger, but as adults, they’d grow that eponymous potbelly, and wobble about, on display in the Academy’s Steinhart Aquarium in San Francisco. Police officers have found 13,991 dried seahorses weighing about 17 kg on Oct. 30, while routinely inspecting a bus from city of Dongxing to Guangzhou, capital city of Guangdong Province. Before this seizure, customs officers confiscated 43kg of the dried seafood in 11 other cases this year. Smaller numbers of dried seahorses are used for curios and novelties. They are made into things like ornaments, key chains and jewellery. Where there is illegal trade in seahorses—for example, where there is no evidence that the specimens were legally imported—we can prosecute under the Control of Trade in Endangered Species Regulations 2018. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Kevin Laurie didn't know he was about to discover an illegal animal murder and trade center when he walked into a shop in the Guangzhou district of China. Illegal trade in dried seahorses: Media reports of seahorse seizures. Dried Seahorses Seized—All Eight Million In this week’s crime blotter: fish illegally bound for Asia, a massive elephant skull, and 22 tortoises in a bag. Before this seizure, customs officers confiscated 43kg of the dried seafood in 11 other cases this year. Ver más ideas sobre Gelatinas con fruta, Gelatinas, Fruta. Researchers estimate that 37 million seahorses are taken from shallow, lush coastal waters every year, mostly ensnared by indiscriminate fishing gear. But medical demand isn’t the whole story. This study investigated the illegal trade of seahorses, among the first taxa of marine fishes to come under global trade restrictions. “Tiny fry need tiny food,” he said. But then he saw the thousands upon thousands of dried seahorses being sold there. And folk remedies, while sometimes suspect, remain popular because health care is especially unpleasant in China. Dave Thomas, the founder of marine conservation group Ecodivers, said illegal poaching was a major threat to their existence. Some countries find it difficult to stop illegal trafficking of seahorses. “They still have so many pressures that are causing their decline in the wild,” he said. Her farm, Ocean Rider, supplies 30 species to the pet trade and for global conservation. Hong Kong customs officers have made their biggest seizure of endangered seahorses in two years with the arrest of a 63-year-old man during an operation against illegal wildlife trade, finding 75kg of the product valued at HK$1 million (US$129,000).About 25kg of the dried seahorses were airmailed into the city from Indonesia via a logistic hub in Shenzhen and were found in a Hong Kong … Even so, captive breeding is unlikely to be widespread or cost-effective enough to supply the much-larger traditional medicine market, Project Seahorse’s Foster cautioned. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Schmarr, Foster and Yong emphasized the whole picture of bycatch, lingering market demand and habitat loss as a tangled, wicked problem. In the decade after the restrictions took effect, tens of millions of seahorses still died worldwide because of nonselective fishing. Regardless if seahorses are traded legally or illegally, Foster said, “what matters is how many are coming out of the water.”, More selective fishing gear is one broad solution. Seahorses and illegal trading: A Note. Sizes are approximate and for straight or curled tails, Be aware if this is a problem do not buy this item. July 15, 2020. admin. The illegal international trade in seahorses has, however, become a big concern. When a keeper approached the tank, the youngsters rushed to the glass, then swam up to the surface, expecting a meal. "Seahorses are a protected species because they're such a fragile marine animal," Thomas said. Scientists say this can’t go on, or seahorses will severely decline. But scientists say that existing measures don’t go far enough. Hong Kong’s biggest seizure of seahorses in two years recovers 75kg of endangered species, valued at HK$1 million A 63-year-old man was arrested for what the Hongkong Customs officers describe as their biggest seizure of endangered seahorses in two years as authorities found 75 kg of dried seahorses, valued at HK$1 million (US$129,000) during an operation against illegal wildlife trade on Wednesday. Cheng, a graduate of UC Berkeley and UCLA, practices traditional Chinese medicine in California, and at Shuguang Hospital in Shanghai. But some day, aquarists like Yong hope to breed imperiled seahorses, so they aren’t taken from the ocean. As conservationists push for long-term international solutions, aquariums, zoos and private businesses are exploring another option: captive breeding. That’s not to say that seahorse doesn’t work, Cheng added. Police in Peru have seized 16,000 dried seahorses, they are used as medicine in some countries but it is illegal to trade in them. Global seahorse trade defies export bans under CITES action and national legislation. Seahorses could be extinct in 30 years: Trade in dried wildlife souvenirs could see the marine creatures wiped out. It's supply. Police officers have found 13,991 dried seahorses weighing about 17 kg on Oct. 30, while routinely inspecting a bus from city of Dongxing to Guangzhou, capital city of Guangdong Province. “Ongoing illegal, unregulated and unreported trade in dried seahorses Despite the decline in reported exports of seahorses, there is evidence of illegal exports from at least some countries that have banned such exports. And if not, Grr! done to implement the inclusion of seahorses in Appendix II of CITES, but the large volumes of illegal trade remain of great concern, as is a lack of monitoring of wild populations by Parties to allow robust science-based NDFs. A new report from NGO TRAFFIC, ‘Seahorse trade dynamics from Africa to Asia’, uses trade data to the world’s biggest importer, Hong Kong, before using statistical analysis to uncover international re-exportation patterns and to identify the key role played by countries in Africa in the global dried seahorse trade.

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